ENDOCRINE ORGAN SYSTEM
PURPOSE/FUNCTION:

Endocrine system is the control centre of our body. It is made up of eight major glands located across body. These glands make hormones. These hormones act as a messenger and control the functioning/processes of various body organs. These hormones travel through the bloodstream to various tissues/organs. Major factors controlled by endocrine system are:

  • Growth and development
  • Metabolism - digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and maintaining body temperature
  • Sexual reproduction
  • Sleep and mood
  • Tissue functioning

endocrine system

IMAGE Source:OpenStax College. Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions

Web site. http://cnx.org/content/col11496/1.6/, Jun 19, 2013

MAJOR COMPONENTS:
- PITUITARY GLAND: A small, oval endocrine gland attached to the base of the vertebrate brain and consisting of an anterior and a posterior lobe, the secretions of which control the other endocrine glands and influence growth, metabolism, and maturation.
- THYROID GLAND: It is a two-lobed gland that wraps around the trachea and is located at the base of our neck. The thyroid gland secretes two important hormones: thyroxine, which regulates the cell metabolism necessary for normal growth and development, and calcitonin, which stimulates the formation of bone and helps regulate the amount of calcium in the blood.
- PARATHYROID GLAND: Any of usually four small kidney-shaped glands that lie in pairs near or within the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. It secretes a hormone necessary for the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus
- ADRENAL GLAND: Either of two small, dissimilar shaped endocrine glands, one located above each kidney, consisting of the cortex, which secretes several steroid hormones, and the medulla, which secretes epinephrine.
- PANCREAS: A long, irregularly shaped gland in vertebrate animals that is located behind the stomach and is part of the digestive system. It secretes hormones (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) into the bloodstream and digestive enzymes into the small intestine or gut. The pancreas also secretes sodium bicarbonate, which protects the lining of the intestine by neutralizing acids from the stomach.
- OVARIES AND TESTICLES: Ovaries are one of the paired female reproductive organs that produce ova and certain sex hormones, including estrogen. Testicles are the primary reproductive organ of males in which sperm and the male sex hormones (androgens) are produced.

MAJOR DISEASES:
Diseases caused because of high secretion, low secretion of hormones or inability of body to use them. Some of them are:
- DIABETES
- HYPOTHYROIDISM
- HYPOGLYCEMIA

 

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